O conceito emergente de “democratic backsliding”: lições para a américa latina a partir de uma nova categoria de investigação democrática

Claudia Regina de Oliveira Magalhães da Silva Loureiro, Augusto Guimarães Carrijo, Igor Costa Vieira, Pedro Henrique Azevedo

Resumo


Resumo:

O artigo propõe-se a explorar um conceito que ganhou relevância nos últimos anos na literatura sobre as tendências democráticas globais: o “democratic backsliding”. Para tanto, parte-se da tentativa de Nancy Bermeo de identificar as manifestações características do backsliding em exemplos históricos, sistematizando lições a respeito da conceituação do fenômeno e de como ele se relaciona com outras formas de retrocesso ou regressão democrática. Adiante, mapeia-se a bibliografia crescente sobre o tema, tendo como norte a evidenciação dos limites à sua importação acrítica, mas também horizontes possíveis de aplicabilidade. Na terceira parte, o artigo volta-se à realidade latino-americana e destaca a importância de diferenciar mutações naturais à política de expressões de democratic backsliding. Finalmente, conclui-se que, se cada democracia possui processos de falência e consolidação próprios, sem olvidar a influência que eventos de escala regional ou global exercem sobre elas, cada crise merece uma análise desnaturalizada, individual e multinível; nesta tarefa, o conceito de democratic backsliding é particularmente útil, desde que não faça perder de vista a necessidade histórica que a democracia tem de um espaço político para transformar-se e amadurecer.

Palavras-chave: democracia, democratic backsliding, política, América Latina, Direito Internacional.

 

 

Abstract: The article aims to explore a concept that has gained relevance in recent years in the literature on global democratic trends: the “democratic backsliding”. To do so, it starts from Nancy Bermeo's attempt to identify the characteristic manifestations of backsliding in historical examples, systematizing lessons about the concept of the phenomenon and how it relates to other forms of democratic regression. Then, the growing bibliography on the subject is mapped, with the aim to highlight the limits to its uncritical import, but also possible horizons of applicability. In the third part, the article turns its attention to the Latin American reality and highlights the importance of differentiating natural mutations in politics from expressions of democratic backsliding. In the end, it is concluded that, if each democracy has its own failure and consolidation processes, without forgetting the influence that events of a regional or global scale exert on them, each crisis deserves a denaturalized, individual and multilevel analysis; in this task, the concept of democratic backsliding is particularly useful, as long as it does not lose sight of the historical need that democracy has for a political space to transform and mature.

Keywords: democracy, democratic backsliding, politics, Latin America, International Law.


Palavras-chave


democracia; democratic backsliding; política; América Latina; Direito Internacional

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